A Maker in the Making – my first steps with Intel® Galileo

Update: a German translation can be found here – Eine Entwicklerin beim Entwickeln: meine ersten Schritte mit dem Intel Galileo Board. (how cool is this!!!)

I am one of the lucky people who managed to have access to an Intel® Galileo board a month ago. The Intel Galileo board is an Arduino certified board using Intel Quark Technology. At the beginning I was very lost, but now I’m borderline obsessed with it.  I find the activity of connecting things and making them work together very relaxing, and it reminded me those childhood moments where I disassembled the stereo, the blender, the talking doll and other articles to see how they worked inside. The best part here is the almost immediate reward of seeing something blink or move so easily. So if you are interested in my journey, keep reading for a report on my first steps.

What will I make?

What will I make?

The first step is to download the Intel Galileo® Arduino SW. It is a prepared version of the Arduino development environment with the image for working with the Intel Galileo board already installed. There are versions for Windows, Linux and MacOS.  The Getting Started document guides you through recognizing, connecting and updating the firmware in your board, so I’m not going to repeat here. There are tons of examples, but the first one you are instructed to try is the Blink example.

Accessing the Blink example

Accessing the Blink example

If you are a newbie like me, the next question would be: great, but now, how do I stop it? Short answer: you can’t. I mean, not through programming. You can always unplug the power (but first disconnect the USB!!! I’m not sure why but the documentation says so 🙂 ).

Update: In the German post, Alexander M nicely explains why is it necessary: “Because otherwise the SPI image on the Galileo may be damaged, and in the case of Galileo can be saved only with external hardware Guide Search. Background: The Galileo requires minimal 550mA current for stable operation, which is normally provided via the AC adapter.If this is not (more) connected but the Galileo still connected via USB to the computer, then it tries to power through this USB port to draw. However, since USB is only specified up to 500mA the current can be almost here, in the worst case during a write operation on the SPI image. Then, the write operation is incomplete and the file structures in the image are corrupted.”

Danke schön!

Danke schön!

But what the Arduino is doing is transferring the sketch (the name Arduino uses for a program) created in the development environment to the Linux system running in the board, which will call that sketch in a loop. Curious? Look at the bottom-dark area in the IDE and you can see the log of what was just done:

Uploading sketch log

Uploading sketch log

 So the slightly more elegant way to stop it is actually upload to the board the initial script, which does nothing, so the board stops blinking and goes to a loop of doing nothing.

Do Nothing sketch

Do Nothing sketch

Ok, now I had my Intel Galileo board connected, updated and had successfully run my first sketch! As you can notice, there are two main parts in a sketch: the setup() and the loop(). As the name suggests, in setup() you set your controls, and in the loop() you program what you want the board to do. The controls are usually associating your variable with the correspondent pin connected to the control of the component, and the loop() will read and/or write something in this control. In the case of our Blink example, the sketch declares pin as 13, then during setup, initializes the digital pin as an output:

Turns on an LED on for one second, then off for one second, repeatedly.
This example code is in the public domain.

// Pin 13 has an LED connected on most Arduino boards.
// give it a name:
int led = 13;

// the setup routine runs once when you press reset:
void setup() {
// initialize the digital pin as an output.
pinMode(led, OUTPUT);

Then in the loop(), it alternates the high and low voltages to make the LED blink, with pauses in between:

// the loop routine runs over and over again forever:
void loop() {
digitalWrite(led, HIGH); // turn the LED on (HIGH is the voltage level)
delay(1000); // wait for a second
digitalWrite(led, LOW); // turn the LED off by making the voltage LOW
delay(1000); // wait for a second

So what next? Well, that’s where we have to start using our imagination – or if you already have a project, start connecting the components. The board itself, although well prepared for many usages, cannot do much more than blink without components or add-ons. This video covers of what the board has, the chipsets and controllers. There is also extensive documentation and the available datasheet on what is in the board. But they are mostly controllers, so I needed some component to play with. My first choice was a servo, and after realizing how the proper connect it, I was able to execute the Sweep sample from Arduino:

This video was made today, after my weekend visit to a hardware store to buy proper jumper cables. As I mention on the beginning, I am only starting this and I don’t know yet what will I do (although I have some ideas) and what will I need, so far I’m testing the basics. During my first tests with the servos, having just wires was not very friendly but worked, but working with the motion sensor convinced me I needed proper tools. Now I have jumper wires, alligator clips (especially for conductive fabric), several LEDs, a breadboard and an anti-static band. Previously I had acquired the motion sensor, a LCD and the conductive fabrics. But then today I found out that I actually also need resistors for working with LEDs – told you, newbie! Although a colleague already stated a clarification on my Facebook wall:

Maybe I need more than resistors...

Maybe I need more than resistors…

In my opinion, getting started is super easy. The documentation is great, many samples, and I’m becoming particularly fond of Adafruit (which I cannot not mention the fact that is owned by a women, Limor Fried). Every component has links for the tutorials on how to use it, which is essential for newbies like me.

Limor Fried, Adafruit owner, Entrepreneur of 2012

As I mention before, what the Arduino development environment will do is to upload a sketch that the Linux system will execute indefinitely. So there is a Linux system… here is where things my start to get interesting 🙂 so may next steps will be 1) buy resistors and get the LEDs working, and 2) start investigating the hacking options for the operating system. I already know Yocto is a way to do it, and some people are already using it. I will keep you posted 😉


Technical content

Para quem ainda não notou, eu não publico conteúdo técnico aqui. Antigamente ainda publicava muito raramente, mas agora que faz parte do meu trabalho, minhas publicações estão concentradas na Intel Developer Zone. Os artigos são exemplos do que ando trabalhando no momento – agora por exemplo estou começando no mundo de desenvolvimento de aplicações para Ultrabooks usando sensores. Toque, GPS, começando agora com acelerômetro, NFC, etc. Também tem algo de HTML5, o que vou expandir no futuro. Então se você quiser saber o que ando fazendo na parte técnica, ou saber mais sobre desenvolvimento para Utrabooks, pode dar uma olhada nos meus artigos e claro, visitar todo o conteúdo disponível na IDZ.

For those who haven’t noticed yet, I don’t publish technical content here. I used to do that seldom before, but now that’s is part of my job, my articles are published at the Intel Developer Zone. Those articles are samples of my work at the moment – right now for instance I’m starting on the development for Ultrabooks using sensors. Touch, GPS, now going into accelerometer, NFC, etc. There is also some content about HTML5 that I intend to expand in the near future. So, if you would like to know what I’ve been doing on the technical side, or to know more about Ultrabooks development, you can check my articles and of course, all the content available at IDZ.

Design in a box

As many people, I’m a big fan of Japanese cuisine. I can’t say I love everything, because I’m passed over the assumption that if I like sushi, I will like any kind sushi or any Japanese dish. One trip to an authentic Japanese restaurant in California proved me this. But still, I like try my choices with new dishes once in a while.

One good way to do it is with a bento box. A bento box it’s a complete meal, but with many items in small portions, so you can taste several dishes and preparations.

Bento Box at Haguruma this weekend, Munich

However, have you really observed a nicely packed bento box into details? I must confess I haven’t, until I was reading Emotional Design. A bento box has several purposes, some basic but some very subtle:

  • To have a nutritional balanced meal. Looking at it, you see protein, carbohydrates, and vegetables.
  • To have a diversity of tastes and offer the possibility of trying different options
  • To have a beautiful presentation, making the consumer inspired and feeling good by looking at it. The major aim would be to have that little sad feeling for destroying such piece of art before eating it.
  • To pack as many different dishes as possible, in such small space.
  • And mainly, to show off the chef’s ability in delivering a nutritional, delicious, packed but yet beautiful meal in constrained space

A bento box it’s a great example of a good design. It has the purpose of feeding and serves this purpose, but adds the extra quality by balancing ingredients and displaying them in a form of art.

As I was thinking over my bento box this weekend, I started thinking on services that lately are becoming very popular into delivering information into a fun and visual form. We all probably have been over extensive reports on market researches and numbers and projections over 150 boring pages. But more and more data companies are starting to offer some other options, like this graphic I’ve seen this weekend:

60 Seconds - Things That Happen On Internet Every Sixty Seconds
Infographic by- Shanghai Web Designers

I do hope this trend continues and improves. Now if you excuse me, this whole bento box talk made me hungry!

I had a dream…

In the future, operating systems will be obsolete. Computers would have personalities. One could be sarcastic, another would be really nice and optimistic, and another would be quiet, artistic and musical. All according with the owner’s personality and desire, and learning user habits and preferences…

A bit of Sci-fi? Hold that thought…

As I mention before, I have an increase interest for cognitive science. It’s the one thing that awakes my passion for technology that has been missing for quite some time. After more than 10 years dealing with integration and support, everything feels like ‘been there, done that’. Even if it’s a new piece of software, protocol, language or interface, it’s a matter of finding out how it works and done, next. So I’m on a very reflective moment in my professional career trying to find what’s next. Not just next position or next job, but in the big picture, what’s next for me, what do I really want to do. And what I really would like to do is to make integration among computers and people, to find new ways to develop computers. Keyboard for instance; it feels such an engineer’s solution. I have no doubt that iPhone and Wii success are hugely due the fact they integrate the user physically in the virtual world they represent, invoking the touch sense rather than just sight.

So, I’m thinking and reading and wondering… but two days ago, I question in my head made me freeze: ‘very nice, but do you have enough imagination to do such work?’ It was a doubt. I’m very creative, but how creative am I really? I was still thinking about it when went to bed, and there is that zone between sleep and awareness where I started imagining…

In the future, computers should have personalities. No keyboard or even input devices should be necessary; we already have headsets reading brain waves, and voice recognition has got to be better by them. Display could be anything, isn’t there this new window glasses where you can display information? So, not just the TV, but your microwave could display news and weather forecast. But that’s for someone who would like to read the news in the morning… what about someone like me, who prefer music? And maybe my microwave would already warm up the milk and pour my coffee.  The fridge would warn that I’m running out of cottage cheese and add it to the list, which would be a list that accepts both touch input – selecting the items I want from the supermarket’s products pictures  – but also accepting my writing and adding it to the list. But that’s easy – fridges are already running Linux

Ok, so the person who likes news can see the news and I can hear music and have my breakfast, what about the family organizing everyone’s breakfast and getting ready to take the kids to school? Traffic information would be nice; ideas for recipes for lunch based on what’s available in the fridge and cupboard, maybe a connected food processor would start chopping the vegetables before you arrive? Adding spices would be my part to it, I never know when I feel like adding cumin or oregano…

The computer would be the main brain of such network of devices. Having your data in the cloud seems fine, until you ran into problems like bandwidth, the fact your data is controlled by someone else and they may shut it down – or even the government may cut your access. So the PC would be an “in-house-cloud-server”. It could be inside of a wall – I bet some people would have it already; I’m certainly doing that when I have my own apartment. And the display would be a small one in the wall, which would display pictures while not in use. So user interfaces also will be obsolete. But all this can only be possible if the industry ever agree on following standards. If you have one ‘Samsung house’ or one ‘Siemens house’, everyone will have to start from scratch and I won’t be able to see it in my lifetime. If we all use the same protocols and APIs, we could do that by 2050 maybe…

Of course, we are talking about people living in areas with Internet access and with money to buy such electric devices – and in many countries, that’s not really an issue. But if we really would like to change everyone’s experience, we need to think about everyone – poor people in Africa, India, Brazil. And amazes me the power technology has, the importance it has over many things I would think are more important. I’ve seen a presentation showing how people use cell phones in some regions in Africa, where there is one source of electricity for everyone, usually in the center of the village, in the city hall or something like it. That doesn’t stop them from having cell phones – remembering glorious days of Nokia phones whose batteries lasted more than one week… so everyone takes their phones to the electricity source and charges them there. Those phones have processing capabilities and network coverage, what else could they do? Play radio? Will processor be so small, cheap and powerful that even those people would manage to have one? So they would have TV and internet capabilities?

And why do we have to hold phones anyway? They are so annoying when you are in a long call, so unnatural to hold them to carry everywhere… why can’t I have already a wristwatch phone, or even bracelet-phone? Even better if I can change its colour to match my outfit – and I hope by 2050 we are over that idea that everything for women has to be pink, please. My watch phone would have a small earpiece for receiving or making calls…

It’s a bunch of ideas and idealization. It may be utopia. It may be people already developing it. But it sure answers my question – I do have imagination…

Qt, MeeGo and AppUp – Qt Contributors Summit

I recently attended the Qt Contributors Summit in Berlin, from June 16 to 18, 2011. The unconference was held in the nice Café Moskau, with many room and common areas for chatting. The main focus for the unconference was to talk about the next version of Qt and the definition of an open governance structure, reclaimed by developers for so long.

Lars Knoll opened the discussion about the next version in one of the first sessions. The last major version for Qt – Qt 4 – was launched 6 years ago. The world was a very different place, and users’ expectations now are also different. There was no iPhone or applications store, touch screen was not prominent and social media just starting. Nowadays all this is just basics, and so Qt framework wants to provide easy infrastructure for developers to create applications meeting those expectations. Qt Quick/QML will play a huge role in this scenario – they will have almost the same capabilities and resources as Qt. The intention is to make easier for ‘opportunistic developers’ – those who want to create simple and small applications to monetize – to use Qt. There were many discussions on how to do that, the priorities, but main message – everything is going QML. Pure Qt resources will continue to be available and improved, but QML is expected to be sufficient for most developers. But I invite my friend and consulting resource for QML, Helio Castro, to write more about it.

Another big conversation was the open governance. Community has been asking this for a long time – 11 years to be exactly – and it is finally happening. The governance will be similar to the Linux kernel governance:

This blog post explains it in details – http://labs.qt.nokia.com/2011/05/20/open-governance-roles-and-responsibilities/ – and as I could not do any better, I will leave to the link to explain J there is also a talk – or rather a discussion – held by Thiago Macieira at Qt Developer Days 2010. http://qt.nokia.com/developer/learning/online/talks/developerdays2010/tech-talks/qt-301s-open-governance-model/

I held two sessions: Qt, MeeGo & AppUp Developer Program and – due the interest raised in this session – MeeGo Application development store.

In the first session, several developers seemed please to find out AppUp is a perfect channel for open source applications to reach mass users on Windows desktops. As Qt is a multi-platform, there are a huge number of Qt applications also available for Windows, but no efficient distribution channel. AppUp is this channel, offering the possibility to distribute open source applications with the source code. When you upload your application, you can choose between several open source licenses, and if you do so, you are required to submit also your SRPM source code package. And your application will be available not only on AppUp, but also on many applications store powered by AppUp. One of the most recent examples is Dixons KnowHow store, pre-installed in netbooks being sold by one of the largest retailers in UK and Ireland. But I shall go into further details in a future post, with screenshots and examples.

During this session, there were many questions on MeeGo application development environment. So we scheduled another session for the next day to talk about the resources and the community to support it. The first place to look at is the main wiki page for MeeGo Apps. Conversations about MeeGo application development are happening in the MeeGo community mailing list and the main #meego irc channel hosted on Freenode. To help developers to package their applications, there is a community OBS server – OpenSuse Building System. For open source applications, developers can request an account for free and submit their code. To host the source code in a collaborative way, MeeGo suggests Gitorious, where developers can also create an account for free.

On the wiki page, you can find the guidelines for packaging applications for Meego, as well as information about the QA process. When one application is submitted to testing, the community can test and rate it. Long story short, if an application has been tested enough and is approved, it will be available in the community repository. You can find more information in the documentation ahead. I’m still learning the process myself, so I can submit more information later.

And overall, was an extremely well planned and awesome event. And even so it was an unconference, the conversations in the hallway still provide many great opportunity and insights. I’ve learn about several great projects, like QML 3D and Gluon, both of with deserve their own blog posts. I also hope the developer present there appreciate our efforts on bringing ClubMate to the unconference – even if that meant empting Germany’s supply that week! And I would like to thank Alexandra Leisse for the amazing job organizing everything – you literally rock! Seriously, you people need to hear her singing…

I shall declare Mondays the Blogging day for me, and hope you all enjoy some of the reports. If you have any suggestions on what subject you would like to see more of, leave your suggestion!

Geek Runner

So this year I decided to embrace my dislike of gyms. I’ve been fighting this dislike for a long time, to the point of hiring personal trainers to make sure I would actually go to the gym and do the exercises without having to memorize everything. Two years, 4 PTs and a lot of money later, I have to say it didn’t work. No fault on the PTs, don’t get me wrong. Although I would appreciate if they could get to a minimum consensus on how training should be, but that’s their issue. On my side, I did get fit; I was less stressed and with almost no fibromyalgia symptoms, had many laughs and learned a lot, but didn’t lose weight. And it’s very simple – exercise and no diet won’t make you lose weight. Dieting and no exercise will. So, exercise is just for management – toning up and stress prevention. And I won’t argue about this point anymore – you can say whatever you want, I won’t change my mind. And if exercise is management, I can tune it down a bit.

Living in Munich is a great motivator for outdoor exercising. Everyone is on their bikes, the sky is blue and there’s green everywhere. So after buying me a nice Fahrrad, I signed up for C25K program and started running – and loved it. I thought I didn’t like running – what I didn’t like was gyms. So after a few weeks, still building up resistance but several apps later, I decided to do a post about it. If you like technology to motivate you, maybe you will find this helpful. You probably also will need a smartphone…

Like I mention, the first app was C25K, or Couch (potato) to 5K run. Although it says K, the distance in there is measured in miles, and you can adjust your goal from 3 to 5 miles. Which is the first low point – how hard it is to have the metrics also in kilometres and kilos instead miles and pounds? I found this app long time ago on The Lady Geek TV app show, and was curious since then. I really like it because it acts like a coach, giving you feedback on what you should do: “warm up”, “run”, “walk”, “run”, “walk”… “cool down”. It tracks your path by the GPS and allows you to add a music playlist which will play randomly. I filled mine taking songs like “Run to the hills” and “Fly away” on iTunes Genius and pushing the resulting list into the app. I miss an option to tag power songs, to push some sprints especially on the last half of the exercise, when you are warm and feel you have more gas then time left on the app. It also has support for social media – Twitter and Facebook – but I won’t post my newbie lame runs while my friends are posting results preparing for marathons. But for start to running, it’s the best app so far.

I also tested the Nike+ GPS. My pair of tennis shoes/trainers/laufschuh is a Nike Structure Triax+ 13, which has a stronger support to correct pronation. I have to say it gives me a lot more stability than any other shoes I’ve tried, and it was one of the reasons I decide start running. Using regular trainers usually made me feel pain just for walking. This model also has support for Nike+, which is a tiny device you put underneath the sole and counts steps and speed. But since Nike+ GPS app do the same with the phone GPS, this piece it’s a bit useless now. As for the app, it doesn’t have anything especial – music, map, distance feedback, online report and social media – but nothing that makes it stand out from others. The only thing would be having a diary online, but that is also available from Polar. Although it does have the power songs tagging… maybe I should explore it a bit more…

A new app I’m trying is Endomondo. I like the name, I guess it comes from endorphin. I was attracted by the possibility to integrating with my heart rate monitor Polar FT60 – but it wasn’t what I thought. See, I love my FT60 – it keeps the log of my training and gives me feedback on the progression; counts my calories according to heart rate but also with the log and previous workouts; and even nags me if I’m particularly lazy in a certain week (feature I disabled after giving up on the gym, I may turn it back on now I’m regularly running). I love it even though Polar shamelessly won’t support Twitter or Facebook posting status, which drove me mad many times as I worked out my ass off into workouts like body combat or double spinning classes, which I would like to brag about it. But no, I had to post it only on my personal blog under https://www.polarpersonaltrainer.com/, where only other Polar users could see. Many people request social media on Polar forums and Facebook page, but no answer from the company. And c’mon Polar, I’ve worked with social media libraries and if I can write a small app to do it, you can too.

Unfortunately, Endomondo don’t work with the FT60, will only work with a Wearlink+(the strap to capture heart rate) with Bluetooth support. And the one with Bluetooth won’t work with my FT60. Maybe Polar is driven by personal trainers, each one believing their training is the correct one and all others are wrong, so not even their own devices talk to each other… Right now I don’t have any particular motivation for buying a Wearlink+ with Bluetooth after spending good money on Polar to leave my precious pink FT60 useless. Maybe I’m the wrong type of consumer who still expects devices to last longer than two years. Hippies… and without that, I’m not sure I need Endomondo. But I will test it a bit more, since many friends are there.

And although I really like my Triax trainners, I’m really inclined to try five-fingers and barefoot running. I love to feel the grass under my foot or burry them on the sand, but I have fairly sensitive feet and I don’t know if that will work. I never liked Converse trainers because of that; I could feel every bump or small rocks on the street. But at the same time, I read about how trainers actually make your muscles weaker for too much cushion, so barefoot running would actually strength them. I’m not sure I will be able to get used to, but I’m willing to try.

I hope the fitness gadgetry will congregate at some point. I heard nice things about Garmin devices and the fact they follow industry friendly standards, which would provide better integration with software and applications. If I will have to buy something new, I would probably investigate them. But for now, I would appreciate if C25K could tag power songs and let me use metrics I’m used to instead making me do mental conversions every time. Let’s see who sprints first…

Location, location…

Eu havia afirmado antes que o twitter matou meu blog. Mas depois de pensar bem, eu acho que minha vida offline matou meu blog… este blog que já viu dias melhores de 300 visitas diárias em média – o que sempre me pareceu estranho para um blog tão aleatório – tem poucas dezenas de teimosos readers e visitas ocasionais vindas de alguma busca. Há muito tempo passei a preferir a vida offline, mas acho minha vida offline demasiado tediosa para comentar. Ainda quero terminar vários drafts sobre meus lugares preferidos de São Paulo e Londres, mas isto é outra conversa…

Mas para atualizar, me mudei novamente. Deixei a cinzenta e cosmopolita Londres pela verde e alemã Munique. Na verdade uma cidadezinha ao lado de Munique, Haar, a 10 minutos do escritório da Intel em Feldkirchen, também do lado de Munique. Sei meia dúzia de palavras em alemão, mas pelo que vejo o sotaque manezinho vai me ajudar na pronúncia – aquele R que sai rasgando a garganta, o s chiando. Aliás, o sotaque manezinho, assim como o carioca, pode não ser o melhor para a pronúncia americana, mas para a pronúncia britânica, para o espanhol e o alemão ajudam muito. Depois de mais um brasileiro me dizer há poucos dias que eu falo como ‘uma gringa que fala português muito bem’, estou me esforçando para falar mais em português, e menos o portunhol que falamos aqui em casa. Sempre tive esta tendência de pegar o sotaque, fosse o sotaque paranaense quando morei em Foz do Iguaçu aos 10 anos, por dois anos antes de voltar correndo pra Floripa, fosse dos companheiros de universidade. Para aprender pronúncia é ótimo, mas já tenho que parar para pensar ao formular uma frase inteira em português, o que é meio bizarro. Então vou me esforçar em escrever e pensar mais em português…

Mas com a segunda mudança internacional em menos de dois anos, acho que posso dar meus pitacos sobre aqueles que pensam, sonham ou querem mudar de país, por alguns anos ou permanentemente. Já que várias pessoas sempre me perguntam a respeito e pedem dicas, resolvi escrever este post. Se está com preguiça de ler, a versão curta e primeira dica é: vale a pena, mas é muito mais difícil do que você imagina.

Quando eu consegui minha primeira mudança para Londres, foi justamente no meio da ‘crise'[1]. Todo mundo me dizia que seria impossível, inclusive meu chefe, quatro meses antes de me perguntar se eu ainda estava interessada… então meu conselho é: ouça conselhos, mas tome todos com uma pitada de sal. Tem gente que vai te dizer que é impossível, que é horrível, que não vale a pena. Não sei se alguem vai te dizer que é fácil, mas mesmo que te digam tudo o que for, se você realmente quiser, você pode fazer acontecer.

Não vou falar aqui dos caminhos ilegais, está claro. Também não acho necessário falar sobre quem tem dupla cidadania, porque pode ir e vir sem muitos problemas. Vou falar da minha experiência de ter um único passaporte brasileiro e ir com a cara e a coragem. Também só posso me restringir a falar da área de tecnologia – você pode vir estudar, e com visto de estudante e tem direito a trabalhar por 20 horas, quem sabe consegue um estagio que pode levar a uma contratação e visto permanente, mas como não tive esta experiência, não posso ajudar…

Pouca gente sabe que quando aceitei o trabalho na Intel, também tive uma oferta da RedHat na Inglaterra. Ambos eram trabalhos muito bacanas, mas a Intel me abria uma área muito diferente, além de transformar meu voluntariado na comunidade open source em trabalho pago. Foi uma decisão muito difícil, porque significava também deixar a área de adminstração de sistemas, mas fui com a cara e a coragem. Além de ter sido uma experiência excelente, dois anos depois acabei indo para a Inglaterra de qualquer maneira. Como mencionei, não foi uma transferência fácil. Passei bastante tempo martelando na cabeça do meu chefe que eu gostaria de ir para a Europa, mas em meio a crise, a possibilidade era quase inexistente. Até que apareceu uma vaga onde precisavam de alguém que tivesse experiência técnica e comercial, falar não apenas com os desenvolvedores mas com executivos das empresas, e para open source. Mesmo que tivessem me dito que não em um primeiro momento, eu sabia que profissionais com este perfil, ainda mais dispostos a viajarem frequentemente, dar palestras, escrever documentação e tudo, não nascem em árvore. Então eu esperei, e conforme minhas previsões, alguns meses depois, a vaga continuava aberta. E então apareceu minha chance…

Segunda dica: se você tem um diferencial, pode ser mais raro, mas vai aparecer uma oportunidade que pouca gente pode preencher. Então você terá uma carta muito valiosa na negociação. Encontre o seu diferencial.

Porém todo o entusiasmo e a busca pela transferência entregaram o quanto eu queria a mudança. Isto em tempos de crise também deu a empresa uma vantagem: meu pacote de realocação foi resumido ao visto de trabalho. Tive que desembolsar e me virar para encontrar apto e pagar a mudança. O apartamento nem foi problema, porque hoje vejo que é muito melhor pegar o dinheiro e buscar por mim mesma que usar serviços de agências contratadas. Mas foi uma baita grana. O trabalho também era menor do que o que eu tinha feito antes, e tive que me acomodar a descer um degrau e voltar a dar suporte e escrever documentação.

Terceira dica: é extremamente difícil, por todos que conheço que conseguiram realocação, manter o mesmo nível profissional. Você provavelmente vai ter que descer um degrau, se é você que está correndo atrás e não a empresa que precisa que você vá.

Encontrei um ambiente informal, descontraído, com todos vindos do mundo open source. Foram dois anos muito divertidos, que possibilitaram que depois de quase quatro anos namorando a distância, Hector e eu pudéssemos morar juntos. Passeamos, conhecemos muitos lugares, fomos a Paris… mas o dinheiro não possibilitava o mesmo estilo de vida. Um apartamento de 45m2 custava 1300 libras ao mes. E isto porque eu tinha condições de pagar isto – muita gente dividia apartamentos com 6 pessoas para pagar 300 libras ao mês em lugares que ficavam pelo menos a uma hora de trem do centro de Londres. Tivessemos ido morar em algum lugar fora de Londres, seria mais fácil, mas então para que eu tinha me mudado?

Quarta dica: não se engane com o valor do salário, não converta em reais. Procure o custo de aluguel, do leite, da carne, do pão. Da cerveja também, mas neste caso valeu muito a pena 🙂

Morei perto de Canary Wharf, um dos corações capitalistas do mundo. É um universo paralelo, onde estão os bancos, a sede da Reuters e outras coisas. Existe um site de trabalhos ali que oferece salários exorbitantes – de 150 a 300 mil libras por ano para programadores. Muita gente ali ganha 500 libras por hora, advogados, stock brokers. Mas não se engane, estes contratos implicam que se você cometer um erro no programa e o banco perder alguns milhões, você é responsável por estes milhões. Você também não terá vida além do trabalho. Por isto existem muitas vagas abertas, a imensa maioria não aguenta muitos anos nisto, faz por algum tempo para fazer um pé de meia e volta para a vida normal. Mas se você está interessado…

Quinta dica: o site é http://www.efinancialcareers.co.uk/

Na Inglaterra existem muitos eventos e grupos de usuários organizando conferências. Para mencionar poucas, existem a UKUPA(user experience e design),  BSides UK(segurança), BarCampLondon, GeekGirlDinner, e claro, varios MeetUps dos grupos de Meego. Se submeter a vagas por sites é muito pouco produtivo, a imensa maioria das vagas são preenchidas por indicações internas. Então fazer networking é fundamental.

Sexta dica: se puder, busque e atenda eventos de tecnologia.

Setima dica: seja direto.

Uma das primeiras coisas que tive que aprender quando comecei a trabalhar com estrangeiros, quando estava no Brasil ainda, foi a ser direta. Para nós parece falta de educação, mas a quantidade de preâmbulo você tem que fazer com muitos estrangeiros é infinitamente menor do que estamos acostumados. Eles preferem que você vá direto ao ponto, não se preocupe em perguntar da família, do papagaio e do time de futebol, um ‘oi tudo bem, eu gostaria de pedir…’ é suficiente. Depende da cultura, claro: semana passada em uma reunião com um colega de trabalho italiano, levamos 20 minutos para começar a falar do objetivo da reunião… foi muito bom exercitar o lado latino, mas dificilmente funcionaria com um americano, inglês ou alemão. Pelo contrário, eles desconfiariam com tanta enrolação.

A Intel tem na sua cultura incentivar as pessoas a mudarem de trabalho de tempos em tempos. A lógica por trás disto é que depois que você domina um trabalho, é natural do ser humano começar a se sentir entediado e o desempenho cai. E como estou sempre pisando no acelerador, esta fase vem muito cedo pra mim. E assim apareceu uma oportunidade – novamente, uma necessidade específica, alguem com conhecimentos tecnicos e comerciais, mas especialmente para Meego. Mas incluía mudar de país – denovo. Porém o grupo parecia interessante, o projeto desafiante – levantar a AppUp, especialmente promovendo a submissão de apps para Meego. (A propósito, você sabia que pode ganhar 500 dólares se sua app para Meego for uma das 100 primeiras a serem disponibilizadas? E que as 10 melhores ganham mais 1000 dólares? Veja em http://appdeveloper.intel.com/en-us/submit-early ).

Então, lá fomos nós novamente… e a qualidade de vida que encontrei está sendo maravilhosa. Londres é fantástica, mas o tempo este ano estava sendo terrível. Nos dois primeiros meses do ano, vi o sol dois dias – apenas dois dias em dois meses. Não sei se era o efeito psicológico de saber que estava indo embora e então admitir o que me fazia falta, mas era deprimente. Aqui em Munique, o céu azul da Bavária tem se apresentado todos os dias. A comida da cantina da Intel é a melhor de todas as cantinas Intel que já experimentei, então não preciso me preocupar em cozinhar e tenho escolhas saudáveis a disposição.

Mas a fama de péssima comida em Londres para mim é injustificada. É porque somos muito privilegiados no Brasil e não nos damos conta – no Brasil cada esquina tem um buffett de comida a quilo, comida bem temperada e variada. Em Londres é outra coisa, almoço é um sanduíche com um pacotinho de batata frita ou sopa ou salada. Porém existem bons lugares para comprar um sanduíche, e outros que você vai comer comida com gosto de papelão. Eu pessoalmente gostava muito do Pret a Manger e do Pod. Mas se você quer comer comida mesmo, deixe de preguiça: vá cozinhar. Eu comi arroz e feijão muitos dias, preparando no fim de semana e fazendo alguma carne e legumes de manhã cedo. Fazer uma refeição descente em um restaurante não sai por menos de 20 libras – sendo bastante otimista. Então se você não vai se candidatar a vagas lá em Canary Wharf, prepare-se para cozinhar.

Oitava dica: pare de reclamar e vá cozinhar.

E por último, pense bem no seu objetivo de vida. O meu muda frequentemente – não achei que o sol, verde, natureza iam me fazer tanta falta. Estou felicíssima em um apto com jardinzinho, longe do burburinho urbano. Mas muitos dos meus colegas fazem questão de morar no centro, e comparado com Londres, em Munique dá pra morar de boa. Assim, na hora de escolher qual país exatamente se encaixa pense não apenas nos museus, pubs e teatros de Londres, ou na Oktoberfest de Munique. Pense no dia a dia, levantar de manhã, enfrentar transito ou transporte público, almoçar, jantar, fim de semana.

E se tiver o espirito aventureiro como eu, se jogue que a vida leva…

Acho que ainda tem assunto, mas por hoje chega, reviso segunda feira…

[1]A proposito, alguem reparou que no ano da ‘marolinha’, a economia retrocedeu em 2009? link Eu nunca vi nenhum anúncio sobre isto, só agora… mas enfim, que continue expandindo e que o pibão se mantenha.

Ada Lovelace Day – My Heroines

“Ada Lovelace Day is an international day of blogging (videologging, podcasting, comic drawing etc.!) to draw attention to the achievements of women in technology and science.Women’s contributions often go unacknowledged, their innovations seldom mentioned, their faces rarely recognised. We want you to tell the world about these unsung heroines, whatever they do. It doesn’t matter how new or old your blog is, what gender you are, what language you blog in, or what you normally blog about – everyone is invited. Just sign the pledge and publish your blog post any time on Wednesday 24th March 2010.”

I have many heroes that inspired me to go ahead. Valerie Aurora, Telsa Gwynne, Pia Waugh, Akkanna Peck, Carla Schroeder, so many… but today I would like to talk about two women, who were the most inspiring for me from the beginning. One is a historical figure, other you may not know.

My historical figure is Grace Hopper. She is someone to admire. Seriously, she was an Admiral 🙂 As many women who made history in Sciences, she was born from a professors couple, who support her interest in academic studies. She is known for many things, the first computer bug, the concept of a compiler and the COBOL language. She won 7 awards for her amazing work in the Navy. She never retired, because every time she tried, they would call her again.

Once Jon Hall “Maddog” told me some stories about her. See, he meet her in person, and attended one of the many talks she would give to schools and academies about Computer Science. The first thing is she was a firm believer that is better to as for forgiveness than for permission. If you ask for permission to do something, you probably will have to fill many forms and reports, schedule, estimations… if instead of that you do it, they may ask ‘why did you do it?’ but you can say ‘sorry, but look! it solves this and that problem, look how great it is now!”. It must have worked, since she could never retired 🙂

The second thing is about nano and pico seconds. She is from the time when computers were huge, occupying entire rooms, and processing information in seconds or centiseconds. She was talking to a cadet once, and she expressed her frustration visualizing a nanosecond. Then she said ‘get me one nanosecond’. He said ‘I’m sorry?’ and she repeated ‘get me a nanosecond’. From time to time, she would see him and ask ‘where is my nanosecond?’. Some time later, this cadet goes to her and hands a piece of paper. She asks ‘what is this’ and he says ‘this is your nanosecond. This is the distance light covers in one nanosecond’. She was delighted, and whenever she would give talks about Computer Science, she would distribute nanoseconds – pieces of paper of 29.9792458 cm. Some years later, she met the cadet again, only now he was Captain. She said ‘you know, you did a great job with the nanosecond thing, would you be able to get me a picosecond?” This time it took him less than a day , when he came back with a black pepper seed, and said ‘this is your picosecond. In the space of one picosecond, light goes around the surface of this seed.’ After that, she would give away picoseconds, and Maddog still has his save.

My second story is about my first boss. When I entered my first year at university, the Federal University of State of Santa Catarina, I was looking for an internship. I came around this job in the Processing Data Nucleo(NPD) of the university, where they have openings for help desk. I had never ever turned on a computer in my life, I was really scared of doing so because I though I could break it. So I met Katia Juca, the manager of the help desk team for the entire campus. And that was my real beginning with Computer Science. Most classes at that point were about Maths and Logic, only one was programming, so for really getting experiences and using a computer, I had my internship. Kathia taught me the start of everything, and she couldn’t remember the last time she got someone so newbie at it. Under her management, I became a support engineer, than a sysadmin, and later support analyst. I’m one of countless people who passed by the NPD and later developed great careers. We had the best time, we had plenty of new toys to play, we had plenty of support from brilliant minds (I only wish I wasn’t so young to take better advantage of what I had there, but I think I turned out ok). But from all of them, Kathia always was my Amazing Grace. Thank you!


“Ada Lovelace Day é um dia internacional para blogar (vale vídeo, podcast, desenhos, etc) para chamar atenção as conquistas da mulher em tecnologia e ciência. A contribuição feminina geralmente não é reconhecida, suas inovações pouco mencionadas, e suas faces dificilmente reconhecidas. Nós queremos que você diga ao mundo sobre estas heroínas, o que quer que elas façam. Não importa qual novo ou antigo seu blog é, qual seu genero, que idioma você ira blogar, ou o que você normalmente bloga a respeito – todo mundo está convidado. Apenas preencha a inscrição e publique algo no seu blog a qualquer hora na Quarta-Feira, dia 24 de Março de 2010.”

Eu tenho muitas heroínas pessoais que me inspiraram a seguir em frente. Valorie Aurora, Telsa Gwynne, Pia Waugh, Akkanna Peck, Carla Schroeder, tantas… mas hoje eu gostaria de falar a respeito de duas destas heroínas, aquelas que foram as maiores inspirações para mim. Uma é uma figura histórica, a outra você talvez não conheça.

Minha figura histórica é Grace Hopper. Ela é alguem admirável. Sério, ela era Almirante da Marinha dos EUA 🙂 Como muitas das mulheres que fizeram história em Ciências, ela era filha de professores, que a motivaram e incentivaram seus interesses acadêmicos. Ela é conhecida por muitas coisas, como o primeiro bug de computador catalogado, o conceito de compiladores e a linguagem COBOL. Ela ganhou 7 condecorações por seu trabalho na Marinha. Ela nunca conseguiu se aposentar, porque toda vez que ela tentava, eles a chamavam ao trabalho novamente.

Porém, em uma visita ao Brasil, tivemos a honra de conhecer algumas outras histórias curiosas a respeito dela de alguem que a conheceu pessoalmente e esteve em uma de suas palestras, Jon Hall Maddog. A primeira é que ela dizia que era melhor pedir desculpas que pedir permissão. Quando você queria fazer alguma coisa, se você dissesse ao seu chefe “posso fazer tal coisa, será bom por isto isto e isto”, geralmente ele vai pedir que vc preencha um relatório, escreva as vantagens e desvantagens, qual a previsão, o cronograma, as consequências… O invés disso, você vai lá e faz. E quando vierem dizer “porque você fez isto?” você diz “desculpe, mas veja, soluciona este e este problema!”. Deve ter funcionado com ela, já que eles não a deixavam se aposentar…

Outra foi sobre os nano e pico segundos. Ela é do tempo daqueles computadores enormes, que processavam informações em segundos ou centésimos de segundos. Ela certa vez conversando com um cadete estava falando: “sabe, eu posso entender o que é um centesímo de segundo, até mesmo um milésimo de segundo, mas não consigo entender um nanosegundo. Faz o seguinte, me arrume um nanosegundo”. Ele perguntou “como, oficial?” e ela repetiu “me arrume um nanosegundo”. Ele acatou, e frequentemente quando ela o encontrava, ela cobrava novamente “e o meu nanosegundo? Eu não vou esquecê-lo, me consiga um nanosegundo”. Meses depois, este cadete vem até ela e entrega uma folha de papel. Ela pergunta “o que é isto?” ele diz “isto é o seu nanosegundo. Esta é a distância que a luz percorre em um nanosegundo”. Ela ficou encantada, e como sempre fazia palestras sobre computação, passou a distribuir nanosegundos nas palestras: folhas de papel de 29.9792458 cm(segundo o wikipedia a medida que a luz percorre em um nanosegundo é esta). Alguns anos depois, ela encontrou este mesmo cadete, mas agora ele já era capitão. Ela disse “sabe, você fez um trabalho tão bom aquela vez com o nanosegundo, será que você conseguiria para mim um picosegundo?” Desta vez ele levou menos de um dia, aparecendo no outro dia com uma semente de pimenta preta, e a depositou sobre a mesa. Ele diste “este é o seu picosegundo. Em um picosegundo, a luz vai de um lado a outro desta semente.” A partir de então, ela passou a distribuir picosegundos nas suas palestras, e segundo Maddog, ele ainda tem o dele guardado.

MInha segunda história é sobre minha primeira chefe. Quando eu entrei na universidade, na UFSC, eu comecei a procurar por estágios, e encontrei esta vaga no Núcleo de Processamento de Dados, NPD. Eu nunca havia sequer ligado um computador na vida e morria de medo de queimar um ao tentar fazer isto. E neste ponto conheci Kathia Juca, a gerente do time de help desk to campus inteiro. E aquele foi a minha real iniciação em Ciências da Computação. A maioria das aulas naquele período eram sobre matemática e lógica, apenas uma sobre programação, então para ter verdadeira experiência em computadores, eu tinha meu estágio. Kathia me ensinou desde o começo de tudo, desde montar e desmontar uma máquina, instalar, configurar e resolver problemas. Ela não se lembrava a ultima vez que havia pego alguém tão novato na área. Sob o seu gerenciamento, eu me tornei primeiro atendente de help desk, depois administradora de sistemas e mais tarde analista de suporte. Eu faço parte de um imenso grupo de pessoas que passaram pelo NPD e dali seguiram para grandes carreiras profissionais. Nós passamos pelos melhores tempos ali, tinhamos muitos ‘brinquedos’ novos para testar, todo o suporte possível de mentes brilhantes que trabalhavam ali (eu apenas gostaria de não ser tão nova quando passei por ali e saber que eu deveria ter aproveitado melhor o que tinha disponível, mas no fim das contas, acho que consegui me desenvolver bem). Mas de todos, Kathia sempre foi minha Amazing Grace. Muito Obrigada!

My Genetic History

I’m still trying to understand how my mother got to carry genes “found today at frequencies seldom greater than 20 percent in Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia” to a tiny little city in Brazil. But the Middle-East part would explain much better my feisty nature than the Brazilian culture…


Your Branch on the Human Family TreeYour DNA results identify you as belonging to a specific branch of the human family tree called haplogroup T. Haplogroup T contains the following subgroups: T, T2, T3, T4, T5.

The map above shows the direction that your maternal ancestors took as they set out from their original homeland in East Africa. While humans did travel many different paths during a journey that took tens of thousands of years, the lines above represent the dominant trends in this migration.

Over time, the descendants of your ancestors ultimately made it into northeastern Europe, where most members of your haplogroup are found today. But before we can take you back in time and tell their stories, we must first understand how modern science makes this analysis possible.

How DNA Can Help

The string of 569 letters shown above is your mitochondrial sequence, with the letters A, C, T, and G representing the four nucleotides – the chemical building blocks of life – that make up your DNA. The numbers at the top of the page refer to the positions in your sequence where informative mutations have occurred in your ancestors, and tell us a great deal about the history of your genetic lineage.

Here’s how it works. Every once in a while a mutation – a random, natural (and usually harmless) change – occurs in the sequence of your mitochondrial DNA. Think of it as a spelling mistake: one of the “letters” in your sequence may change from a C to a T, or from an A to a G.

After one of these mutations occurs in a particular woman, she then passes it on to her daughters, and her daughters’ daughters, and so on. (Mothers also pass on their mitochondrial DNA to their sons, but the sons in turn do not pass it on.)

Geneticists use these markers from people all over the world to construct one giant mitochondrial family tree. As you can imagine, the tree is very complex, but scientists can now determine both the age and geographic spread of each branch to reconstruct the prehistoric movements of our ancestors.

By looking at the mutations that you carry, we can trace your lineage, ancestor by ancestor, to reveal the path they traveled as they moved out of Africa. Our story begins with your earliest ancestor. Who was she, where did she live, and what is her story?

Your Ancestral Journey: What We Know Now

We will now take you back through the stories of your distant ancestors and show how the movements of their descendants gave rise to your mitochondrial lineage.

Each segment on the map above represents the migratory path of successive groups that eventually coalesced to form your branch of the tree. We start with your oldest ancestor, “Eve,” and walk forward to more recent times, showing at each step the line of your ancestors who lived up to that point.

Mitochondrial Eve: The Mother of Us All

Ancestral Line: “Mitochondrial Eve”

Our story begins in Africa sometime between 150,000 and 170,000 years ago, with a woman whom anthropologists have nicknamed “Mitochondrial Eve.”

She was awarded this mythic epithet in 1987 when population geneticists discovered that all people alive on the planet today can trace their maternal lineage back to her.

But Mitochondrial Eve was not the first female human. Homo sapiens evolved in Africa around 200,000 years ago, and the first hominids – characterized by their unique bipedal stature – appeared nearly two million years before that. Though Homo sapiens have been around for about 200,000 years, about 150,000 to 170,000 years ago, a woman was born from whom we are all descended. This happened 30,000 years after Homo sapiens evolved in Africa.

Eventually, for any number of reasons, all of the other lineages of people went extinct, and “Mitochondrial Eve” as we call her, was the only female who had descendants that are now living in the present day. We can all be traced back to that one woman, who lived about 170,000 years ago.

Which begs the question, “So why Eve?”

Simply put, Eve was a survivor. A maternal line can become extinct for a number of reasons. A woman may not have children, or she may bear only sons (who do not pass her mtDNA to the next generation). She may fall victim to a catastrophic event such as a volcanic eruption, flood, or famine, all of which have plagued humans since the dawn of our species.

None of these extinction events happened to Eve’s line. It may have been simple luck, or it may have been something much more. It was around this same time that modern humans’ intellectual capacity underwent what author Jared Diamond coined the Great Leap Forward. Many anthropologists believe that the emergence of language gave us a huge advantage over other early human species. Improved tools and weapons, the ability to plan ahead and cooperate with one another, and an increased capacity to exploit resources in ways we hadn’t been able to earlier, all allowed modern humans to rapidly migrate to new territories, exploit new resources, and outcompete and replace other hominids, such as the Neandertals.

It is difficult to pinpoint the chain of events that led to Eve’s unique success, but we can say with certainty that all of us trace our maternal lineage back to this one woman.

The L Haplogroups: The Deepest Branches

Ancestral line: “Eve” > L1/L0

Mitochondrial Eve represents the root of the human family tree. Her descendents, moving around within Africa, eventually split into two distinct groups, characterized by a different set of mutations their members carry.

These groups are referred to as L0 and L1, and these individuals have the most divergent genetic sequences of anybody alive today, meaning they represent the deepest branches of the mitochondrial tree. Importantly, current genetic data indicates that indigenous people belonging to these groups are found exclusively in Africa. This means that, because all humans have a common female ancestor, “Eve,” and because the genetic data shows that Africans are the oldest groups on the planet, we know our species originated there.

Haplogroups L1 and L0 likely originated in East Africa and then spread throughout the rest of the continent. Today, these lineages are found at highest frequencies in Africa’s indigenous populations, the hunter-gatherer groups who have maintained their ancestors’ culture, language, and customs for thousands of years.

At some point, after these two groups had coexisted in Africa for a few thousand years, something important happened. The mitochondrial sequence of a woman in one of these groups, L1, mutated. A letter in her DNA changed, and because many of her descendants have survived to the present, this change has become a window into the past. The descendants of this woman, characterized by this signpost mutation, went on to form their own group, called L2. Because the ancestor of L2 was herself a member of L1, we can say something about the emergence of these important groups: Eve begat L1, and L1 begat L2. Now we’re starting to move down your ancestral line.

Haplogroup L2: West Africa

Ancestral line: “Eve” > L1/L0 > L2

L2 individuals are found in sub-Saharan Africa, and like their L1 predecessors, they also live in Central Africa and as far south as South Africa. But whereas L1/L0 individuals remained predominantly in eastern and southern Africa, your ancestors broke off into a different direction, which you can follow on the map above.

L2 individuals are most predominant in West Africa, where they constitute the majority of female lineages. And because L2 individuals are found at high frequencies and widely distributed along western Africa, they represent one of the predominant lineages in African-Americans. Unfortunately, it is difficult to pinpoint where a specific L2 lineage might have arisen. For an African-American who is L2 – the likely result of West Africans being brought to America during the slave trade – it is difficult to say with certainty exactly where in Africa that lineage arose.

Fortunately, collaborative sampling with indigenous groups is currently underway to help learn more about these types of questions and to possibly bridge the gap that was created during those transatlantic voyages hundreds of years ago.

Haplogroup L3: Out of Africa

Ancestral line: “Eve” > L1/L0 > L2 > L3

Your next signpost ancestor is the woman whose birth around 80,000 years ago began haplogroup L3. It is a similar story: an individual in L2 underwent a mutation to her mitochondrial DNA, which was passed onto her children. The children were successful, and their descendants ultimately broke away from the L2 clan, eventually separating into a new group called L3. You can see above that this has revealed another step in your ancestral line.

While L3 individuals are found all over Africa, including the southern reaches of sub-Sahara, L3 is important for its movements north. You can follow this movement of the map above, seeing first the expansions of L1/L0, then L2, and followed by the northward migration of L3.

Your L3 ancestors were significant because they are the first modern humans to have left Africa, representing the deepest branches of the tree found outside of that continent.

Why would humans have first ventured out of the familiar African hunting grounds and into unexplored lands? It is likely that a fluctuation in climate may have provided the impetus for your ancestors’ exodus out of Africa.

The African Ice Age was characterized by drought rather than by cold. Around 50,000 years ago the ice sheets of northern Europe began to melt, introducing a period of warmer temperatures and moister climate in Africa. Parts of the inhospitable Sahara briefly became habitable. As the drought-ridden desert changed to savanna, the animals your ancestors hunted expanded their range and began moving through the newly emerging green corridor of grasslands. Your nomadic ancestors followed the good weather and plentiful game northward across this Saharan Gateway, although the exact route they followed remains to be determined.

Today, L3 individuals are found at high frequencies in populations across North Africa. From there, members of this group went in a few different directions. Some lineages within L3 testify to a distinct expansion event in the mid-Holocene that headed south, and are predominant in many Bantu groups found all over Africa. One group of individuals headed west and is primarily restricted to Atlantic western Africa, including the islands of Cabo Verde.

Other L3 individuals, your ancestors, kept moving northward, eventually leaving the African continent completely. These people currently make up around ten percent of the Middle Eastern population, and gave rise to two important haplogroups that went on to populate the rest of the world.

Haplogroup N: The Incubation Period

Ancestral line: “Eve” > L1/L0 > L2 > L3 > N

Your next signpost ancestor is the woman whose descendants formed haplogroup N. Haplogroup N comprises one of two groups that were created by the descendants of L3.

The first of these groups, M, was the result of the first great wave of migration of modern humans to leave Africa. These people likely left the continent across the Horn of Africa near Ethiopia, and their descendants followed a coastal route eastward, eventually making it all the way to Australia and Polynesia.

The second great wave, also of L3 individuals, moved north rather than east and left the African continent across the Sinai Peninsula, in present-day Egypt. Also faced with the harsh desert conditions of the Sahara, these people likely followed the Nile basin, which would have proved a reliable water and food supply in spite of the surrounding desert and its frequent sandstorms.

Descendants of these migrants eventually formed haplogroup N. Early members of this group lived in the eastern Mediterranean region and western Asia, where they likely coexisted for a time with other hominids such as Neandertals. Excavations in Israel’s Kebara Cave (Mount Carmel) have unearthed Neandertal skeletons as recent as 60,000 years old, indicating that there was both geographic and temporal overlap of these two hominids.

The ancient members of haplogroup N spawned many sublineages, which spread across much of the rest of the globe and are found throughout Asia, Europe, India, and the Americas.

Haplogroup R: Spreading Out

Ancestral line: “Eve” > L1/L0 > L2 > L3 > N > R

After several thousand years in the Near East, individuals belonging to a new group called haplogroup R began to move out and explore the surrounding areas. Some moved south, migrating back into northern Africa. Others went west across Anatolia (present-day Turkey) and north across the Caucasus Mountains of Georgia and southern Russia. Still others headed east into the Middle East, and on to Central Asia. All of these individuals had one thing in common: they shared a female ancestor from the N clan, a recent descendant of the migration out of Africa.

The story of haplogroup R is complicated, however, because these individuals can be found almost everywhere, and because their origin is quite ancient. In fact, the ancestor of haplogroup R lived relatively soon after humans moved out of Africa during the second wave, and her descendants undertook many of the same migrations as her own group, N.

Because the two groups lived side by side for thousands of years, it is likely that the migrations radiating out from the Near East comprised individuals from both of these groups. They simply moved together, bringing their N and R lineages to the same places around the same times. The tapestry of genetic lines became quickly entangled, and geneticists are currently working to unravel the different stories of haplogroups N and R, since they are found in many of the same far-reaching places.

Haplogroup T: Your Branch on the Tree

Ancestral line: “Eve” > L1/L0 > L2 > L3 > N > R > T

We finally arrive at your own clan, a group of individuals who descend from a woman in the R branch of the tree. The divergent genetic lineage that constitutes haplogroup T indicates that she lived sometime around 40,000 years ago.

Haplogroup T has a very wide distribution, and is present as far east as the Indus Valley bordering India and Pakistan and as far south as the Arabian Peninsula. It is also common in eastern and northern Europe. Although your haplogroup was present during the early and middle Upper Paleolithic, T is largely considered one of the main genetic signatures of the Neolithic expansions.

While groups of hunter-gatherers and subsistence fishermen had been occupying much of Eurasia for tens of thousands of years, around ten thousand years ago a group of modern humans living in the Fertile Crescent – present-day eastern Turkey and northern Syria – began domesticating the plants, nuts, and seeds they had been collecting. What resulted were the world’s first agriculturalists, and this new cultural era is typically referred to as the Neolithic.

Groups of individuals able to support larger populations with this reliable food source began migrating out of the Middle East, bringing their new technology with them. By then, humans had already settled much of the surrounding areas, but this new agricultural technology proved too successful to ignore, and the surrounding groups quickly copied these new immigrants. Interestingly, DNA data indicate that while these new agriculturalists were incredibly successful at planting their technology in the surrounding groups, they were far less successful at planting their own genetic seed. Agriculture was quickly and widely adopted, but the lineages carried by these Neolithic expansions are found today at frequencies seldom greater than 20 percent in Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia.

Anthropology vs. Genealogy

DNA markers require a long time to become informative. While mutations occur in every generation, it requires at least hundreds – normally thousands – of years for these markers to become windows back into the past, signposts on the human tree.

Still, our own genetic sequences often reveal that we fall within a particular sub-branch, a smaller, more recent branch on the tree.

While it may be difficult to say anything about the history of these sub-groups, they do reveal other people who are more closely related to us. It is a useful way to help bridge the anthropology of population genetics with the genealogy to which we are all accustomed.

One of the ways you can bridge this gap is to compare your own genetic lineage to those of people living all over the world. Mitosearch.org is a database that allows you to compare both your genetic sequence as well as your surname to those of thousands of people who have already joined the database. This type of search is a valuable way of inferring population events that have occurred in more recent times (i.e., the past few hundred years).

Looking Forward (Into the Past): Where Do We Go From Here?

Although the arrow of your haplogroup currently ends across Western Eurasia, this isn’t the end of the journey for haplogroup T. This is where the genetic clues get murky and your DNA trail goes cold. Your initial results shown here are based upon the best information available today—but this is just the beginning.

A fundamental goal of the Genographic Project is to extend these arrows further toward the present day. To do this, Genographic has brought together ten renowned scientists and their teams from all over the world to study questions vital to our understanding of human history. By working together with indigenous peoples around the globe, we are learning more about these ancient migrations.

Help Us Find More Clues!

But there is another way that we will learn more about the past. By contributing your own results to the project, you will be allowed to participate anonymously in this ongoing research effort. This is important because it may contribute a great deal to our understanding of more recent human migrations. Click the yellow button below in the “Help Us Tell the Story” section of your results profile to learn more about this. It’s quick, easy, and anonymous, but will help us further refine our analyses.

Don’t Be a Stranger

Finally, keep checking these pages to follow along with the project and our latest findings; your results profile will be automatically updated to reflect any new information that may come to light based on the research.

By the Genographic Project

Moblin 2.0 – User Experience

Disclaimer: Um dos motivos que eu não blogo mais frequentemente é porque fico querendo colocar mais e mais e mais informações e não acabo nunca, ou quando estou quase acabando, o assunto não é mais relevante. Comecei a escrever sobre a nova versão do Moblin logo depois que foi lançado e eu estava testando em primeira mão, porém além de purismo, outras atividades começaram a demandar mais do meu tempo. Como se não fosse suficiente, me lancei em uma missão kamikaze no trabalho e tenho duas semanas para fazer milagre, e este post provavelmente ficaria congelado. Isto não é provavelmente a metade do que eu pretendia publicar, mas vou optar por mudar desta vez e seguir o preceito “release early, release often“, e dar um gostinho para vocês do que realmente o Moblin 2.0 tras e o que se pode esperar. Prometo escrever mais semana que vem.

Semana passadaretrasada foi anunciada a versão 2.0 beta para netbooks do projeto Moblin, trazendo uma drástica diferença não apenas da versão 1, mas também de todos os desktops Linux até então. A notícia gerou muito barulho e foi parar no NYTimes, além de muitas análises mundo afora. Apesar de ser a versão beta, as novidades desta versão, que não comprometeram a estabilidade, foram o principal foco dos comentários.

O Moblin vem sido desenvolvido há dois anos, com foco nas novas funcionalidades que o processador Atom oferece. O mercado de netbooks, nettops e MIDs tem requisitos específicos: baixo consumo de energia e maior duração da bateria; tamanho da tela; e preço – porém sem comprometer o desempenho. E um dos usos mais esperados para estes dispositivos é para mídias – músicas, vídeos, fotos – que requerem mais do processador. Assim, foram incluídos no Atom recursos específicos para manipular mídia, habilitados pelo conjunto de instruções SSSE3. Estas instruções estão presentes na maioria dos processadores Intel desde o Pentium III, porém muitos dos primeiros netbooks que chegaram ao mercado utilizavam versões mais antigas do Celeron que ainda não vinham com estas funcionalidades. Porém qualquer computador baseado em versões mais novas com SSSE3 devem rodar o Moblin sem problemas e a todo vapor.

Eu finalmente tirei algumas horas testando o sistema num netbook Asus eeePC … , e testando como é realizar as atividades que estou acostumada a realizar normalmente na internet. A primeira coisa que notei é que um netbook de 8″ tem um teclado pequeno demais para meu conforto – logo eu que adoro teclados com as teclas altas, fofinhas, que fazem barulho, não aqueles teclados achatados e fininhos… questão de gosto e tamanho da mão. Mas tudo bem, semana que vem devo ter recebi um HP Mini Vivienne Tam(um lushoo), voltado ao público fashionista, não apenas feminino. A imensa maioria dos consumidores de netbook já são mulheres (preciso buscar a url exata deste estudo) – o item mais importante é o tamanho, peso e preço, não apenas ter um case coloridinho. Mas o que seria de nós sem a mídia para nos tornarem fúteis e sem a menor noção de computadores, não é mesmo?

Voltemos ao sistema, que é o assunto a ser tratado aqui. A primeira coisa a ser notada é o boot: uau! Vamos cronometrar, um, dois, três e … pronto! Ok, não foram três segundos, mas menos de 10 para ter a interface gráfica carregada e funcional, é uma ótima marca. Já podemos começar.

O sistema teve sua interface completamente reescrita e redesenhada, e desta vez implementada com recursos possíveis através do Clutter. Quando você testar, verá vários efeitos especiais bastante divertidos, que adicionam um atrativo a mais sem comprometer a performance, o que é muito bem vindo para máquinas com poder de processamento limitado.

A tela inicial do Moblin é a MyZone:

Aqui você pode ver boa parte do que o sistema tem. A barra de aplicações contem acesso rápido a algumas funções, porém ela só aparece quando você indica que precisa dela levando o cursor do mouse para a área superior da tela. Se não, ela sai do caminho e deixa mais espaço para suas aplicações, o que é precioso em telas reduzidas dos netbooks.

A área mais à esquerda contem seus compromissos do dia na parte superior e suas aplicações favoritas na parte inferior. A área no meio é o que você andou fazendo: documentos, páginas, mídias ou aplicações que foram recentemente usadas. E a área mais à direita são feeds de serviços baseados na web que você normalmente utiliza: Last.fm e Twitter são os habilitados nesta versão beta, mas as possibilidades são ilimitadas.

Proximo passo, conectar a internet. Infelizmente o sistema esteve um pouco instável com minha rede wireless WPA2, e aparente muitas placas wifi não tem se comportado muito bem – embora não tenha ficado lá muito empolgada com o Connman, mas isto é uma outra história… então vamos conectar o cabo e fazer o que realmente viemos fazer aqui, acessar a internet normalmente! Primeiro passo, então, é clicar no ícone internet:


Mas geralmente tenho várias tabs abertas, vamos abrir mais algumas:

Clicando naquela seta no canto direito superior, você pode ter um preview de todas as abas abertas:

Logo o sistema aprende quais são as minhas preferidas ultimamente e as ordena na lista de mais acessadas, que aparece quando abro uma nova tab.

Para que serve o botão de Status mesmo?

Ah, para Twittar ou checar meu último twitter…

Meus bons amigos, onde estão? Notícias de todos quero saber… então vamos checar o que eles andam fazendo na área de webservices da MyZone.

Ou simplesmente posso buscar quem estou querendo falar neste momento no botão People, onde tenho cadastradas minhas contas de jabber, gtalk, etc.

(geralmente desnecessário para quem não tem amigos)

O objetivo principal de netbooks é para acesso a internet, mas podem servir para outras distrações:

Frozen Bubble, um clássico entre os usuários de Linux

Bem, como disse anteriormente, preferi “release early, release often” do que ficar com isto armazenado mais uma semana para terminar e publicar. Prometo que em uma semana publicarei mais detalhes, que podem ser sugeridos na sessão de comentários. Agora, deixa eu voltar à minha missão